Letterlocking Format Catgories & Dictionary


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Letterlocking Format Catgories & Dictionary


Letterlocking Resources

 

Letterlocking refers to the timeless technology of folding & securing any object (such as papyrus, parchment, or paper) to function as its own enclosure. Letterlocking is part of a 10,000 year-old information security tradition, ranging from Mesopotamian clay bullae to Bitcoin. Variations found in cultures throughout the world manipulate information to ensure secure communications. Documenting the physical details of well-preserved originals has helped to define the different locking formats with their multiple levels of built-in security and their various authentication devices. These formats may correlate to the sensitivity of the information contained inside. Please enjoy this growing collection of resources which include a dictionary (coming soon), letterlocking format categories and sub-categories, a timeline, links to presentations, and links to instructional videos (that offer a guide for folding and sealing or securing a letter shut) that show how historic manuscripts once functioned. Many thanks to Dr. Daniel Starza Smith who has really taken the time these last two years to learn how to understand the process of letterlocking (actually going in archives and making models) so I have someone to rethink tiny terminology details (of slit direction names or "object" vs "writing surface") etc. We teach together and that brings the experience to a whole new level-from the perspective of an archive historian and literary scholar and a conservator. Thanks also to Brien Beidler for helping to organize the letterlocking formats by categories (and for his research on how to  make historic sealing wax and starch wafers) and to Dr. Nadine Akkerman, Dr. Peter Langman, Dr. David van der Linden for helping to refine the categories. Additional thanks to my many other collaborators. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter @letterlocking.

Letterlocking  is also part of a long tradition of building security and authentication devices into legal and accounting formats in Western cultures. Check out the growing number of videos here

Additional resources: Daniel Starza Smith's The Material Features of Early Modern Letters: A Reader's Guide on the Bess of Hardwick's Letter's website.

Letterlocking article by Jana Dambrogio Historical Letterlocking

Assumed model versions of various letterlocked documents from the 15th to the 20th centuries.

The examination of well-preserved original manuscripts helps us to identify and "reverse-engineer" opened historic letters and documents to understand how they once became their own sending devices. Access to the originals is a requisite for this study. The conservation of original manuscripts--maintaining their folds, cut-off corners, slits, paper fragments, etc.-- is vital to understanding the story behind the words.

 

Dictionary of Letterlocking (coming soon)

Letterlocking Historic Manuscript Timeline

Presentations & Publications

 Letterlocking Categories 

Learn how to identify the many different ways historic manuscripts fold to become their own enclosure

OR

Letterlocking Timeline: Images + Videos


Letterlocking Timeline: Images + Videos


 

Historic manuscript letterlocking examples in chronological order

 

 

Letterlocking refers to the the timeless technology of folding & securing any object to function as its own enclosure. Letterlocking is part of a 10,000-year information security tradition. Opened originals of historic manuscripts are modeled allowing us to "reverse engineer" each format to figure out how they once functioned. All letterlocking closed formats are based on examination of well-preserved opened original manuscripts that retain their original locking components. Thank you to the many institutions for granting access to original manuscripts, a must for letterlocking research. This page is a work in progress.

1440. England. Paston Family Letters. British Library.

1494. Tuck and seal + triangle-shaped paper lock with slit perpendicular to vertical axis, Italy.

1498-1499. Locked letter later sewn into a fascicle. Italy.

Modeled after Vatican Secret Archive, Fondo Veneto II, 668, (one out of many items stored in this box). Gesuati, San. Girolami di Vicenza. 1498-99. (v.s.deest.) (v) Processo per la Villa dell'Acquagnolla. In its "first" stage, the document comprised of three bi-folios (3 papers folded in half). The document was folded in quarters, stabbed twice, and locked shut (I originally called these vampire stabs, but now this lock is called the "Two-part Lock since it has a narrow piece of paper laced through the stabs that travels in one slit and out the other of all the pages of the folded letter. Wax was placed over the tails of the laced band of paper and the diamond-shaped paper lock sandwiched the warm wax between the papers as the sealing matrix was impressed into layers securing the letter shut). In it "second" stage, at some point after the document was opened, it was sewn into a fascicle with reused parchment guards adding extra strength for the sewing threads to pass on the front cover and the inner fold of the section. The "third" addition to this record included a document inserted into the booklet (possibly to keep related subject matter together?) The inserted docuemnt does not have any stabs. The original dimensions are: H 322mm x W 222mm, inserted document: H 314mm x W 215mm.

 

1532. Hybrid: Tuck and seal + paper lock with slit perpendicular to the fore-edge. England.

1578. Document folded and stored in textile bag. Italy.

Modeled after Vatican Secret Archive Record Group, ASV, Fondo Veneto II, 876. Religious Order: Gesuati. Monastery: San Girolamo in Vicenza. Original dimensions, textile envelope: 203mm x 90 mm. Original dimensions, letter, opened: 311mm x 212mm. This is the only letter I have documented to date that appears to have once been stored (and sewn?) shut.

1580s-1590s, Triangle-shaped paper lock with slit/s parallel to fore-edge, England and Italy.

1580s, Triangle-shaped paper lock with slit/s perpendicular to the fore-edge, England & Italy.

1584. Arrest warrant. Paper folds for writing and cross-hatching. England.

1580-1770s. "Pleated" England and Europe.

1586. August. Italy. "Tuck and Seal". England and Europe.

Modeled after Vatican Secret Archive, Record Group, ASV Fondo Veneto II, 670, 2, (one out of many items stored in this box). A letter from Tomaso di Levrieri to reverend Zuan Pietro Teg.mo (?), most worthy prior of the reverend fathers Gesuati of Vicenza

 

1612. Italian. Diamond-shaped paper lock cut from bottom of letter with slit parallel to fore-edge.

Modeled after Vatican Secret Archive Record Group ASV Fondo Veneto II, 796, (one out of many items stored in this box). Letter from Pietro Sementi to reverend padre Daniele Rosa, Santa Maria dall Horto, Venezia, dated: 23 April 1613. This is the only letter I have documented to date where the long diamond-shaped paper lock is cut from the bottom two panels (not from a corner or the inside of a blank margin) to secure the letter shut. This falls into one of the most secure letterlocking format categories, category VII.

1600s. Blank Margin Lock with Vertical slit or slits. England, Italy, and Scotland. Most secure.

1700s. Spain. Ceremonial Letter Spanish Kings and Queen to members of the Boncompagni Ludovisi Family, Rome, Italy.

Courtesy of HSH Prince Nicolò Boncompagni Ludovisi and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Archivio Boncompagni Ludovisi (Villa Aurora). Photo credits: J. Dambrogio 2010. To learn more visit http://villaludovisi.org/

1700s, French, "Removable Paper Lock", Letters from French Kings and Queen to members of the Boncompagni Ludovisi Family, Rome, Italy.

Courtesy of HSH Prince Nicolò Boncompagni Ludovisi and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Archivio Boncompagni Ludovisi (Villa Aurora). Photo credits: J. Dambrogio and Dr. T. Corey Brennan 2010. To learn more visit http://villaludovisi.org/

1775. Austria. Two Part Lock. Tuck & seal + papered seal over thin laced paper lock.

Courtesy of HSH Prince Nicolò Boncompagni Ludovisi and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Archivio Boncompagni Ludovisi (Villa Aurora). Photo credits: J. Dambrogio 2010. To learn more visit http://villaludovisi.org/

1815. Tunisia. Tuck & seal with two horizontal stabs with kite-shaped "removable" paper lock. Ceremonial Letter to the USA.

 

1940s. Russian Soldier WWII Triangle Letters.

Russian manuscript letter: Courtesy of the MIT Libraries Wunsch Conservation Lab Historic Letterlocking Manuscript Study Collection. "Letters of Triangles" by Lucy May Schofield, 2013.

Category: Fold & Tuck


Category: Fold & Tuck


Category: Fold & Tuck

In this, the least secure of the types of letterlocking that will be described here, the letter or document is simply folded and tucked into itself: the letter can thus be opened, read and refolded leaving no visible signs of entry.

World War II Russian Soldier Triangle Letters, 1940s

WWII-era Prisoner of War form stationery, 1940s

 "Pis'ma-treigol'niki = Letters of Triangles", by LucyMay Schofield. 2013

Category Fold + mechanical lock


Category Fold + mechanical lock


Letters or documents in which the folds are secured using a physical lock made of textile, parchment or paper. The fastener could be removed and replaced without notice of tampering.

#SignedSealedUndelivered. Video coming soon. www.brienne.org

Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock


Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock


These letters come in two variants; the first having no built-in security, the second having a high level of built-in security.

Fold, slit and removable/reusable lock. This first variant, which has no built-in security, is often found in letters which place aesthetic considerations above privacy. The folded packet has a paper lock that may be removed and replaced without any evidence of tampering. The lock simply wraps around the unbound edges of the package to close it.

Fold, slit and [mechanical] lock. These letters are more or less impossible to open without damaging the paper lock or leaving evidence of tampering. Two examples appear to have a dagger-shaped lock cut out of the blank margin area of the substrate that remains attached to it while the object is folded into a packet. The lock weaves through a series of punctures or slits in the fore-edge of all the panels of the folded packet, an action once carried out is extremely difficult to reverse without incurring damage. This category is assumed since no unopened letters are extant, while evidence of the paper lock is limited to paper missing from the gutter margin. The letters as reconstructed would have had a high level of built-in

Courtesy of HSH Prince Nicolò Boncompagni Ludovisi and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Archivio Boncompagni Ludovisi (Villa Aurora). Photo credits: Dr. T. Corey Brennan 2010. To learn more visit http://villaludovisi.org/

Category: Fold & secure with an adhesive


Category: Fold & secure with an adhesive


Substrates are folded into packets and secured shut with an adhesive such as sealing wax, gummed edges, starch wafer, or pressure sensitive wafers. There are no secondary mechanical locks.

Fold and secure with an adhesive. The substrate is folded and edges are sealed shut with an adhesive. Some examples in this category include C20th Aerogrammes (often government-issued), fold and send stationery (which is used in the C21st) where the letter sheet is folded and three edges extend slightly farther on the outermost panel edges so that those edges (often gummed) may fold over and secure the packet shut (using remoistenable gummed edges or pressure sensitive adhesive). Computer generated Bitcoin paper wallets also fall into this category and are often folded and sealed shut to hide the key code with two or three pieces of holograph pressure-sensitive tape.

Fold, tuck, and secure with adhesive, a.k.a. "Tuck & Seal". The substrate is reduced in size (often by tri folding or quartering the paper first) so that one edge may tuck into the other. The adhesive can be placed in a combination of ways to secure the packet shut: sandwiched between the top sheet and the area of the other side, tucked below and/or across the overlap. Variations of this format have been used since the late 15th century, and it is commonly referred to as the “tuck and seal” within materiality scholarship

Fold, cut, tuck, and secure with an adhesive. The substrate is folded, with a part of it being cut, and the remainder of the letter is tucked and sealed. This method is common amongst 16th century Italian legal and accounting documents

Tuck and seal, four-panel + trifold. Italy and England. 1480s-1700s.

Tuck and seal. Trifold + trifold. John Donne's tuck and seal letter to Sir Nicholas Carew

The tuck and seal format was a very common letterlocking style in early modern England. It is sturdy, reliable, sensible, and discreet – and is much easier to make than to describe in words! In this example, after the letter is written, the paper is folded twice along its long edge – once a third down from the top, and once a third up from the bottom. The same process is then repeated from each side, to create two flaps. One of these is then inserted (“tucked”) into the other. The letter-locker would be careful to ensure that the flap being tucked was inserted into the “pocket” created by gently squeezing the other flap. It is also important that only one layer of paper stands between the tucked flap and the outside of the letter (see video 1:50-2:00): this minimizes potential loss to words on the inside of the letter. In this example, once the tucking is completed, hot wax is inserted between the overlapping folds (2:12–2:15). The sealing tool can then be impressed onto the paper outside to create a papered seal, or (as in this video, 2:30–2:33) more wax can be applied outside and the tool impressed into the warm sealing wax to create an exposed seal. The important application is under the paper, however, since this is what secures the letter shut. This letter is modeled on Donne’s letter to Sir Nicholas Carew (21 June 1625), Harvard MS Eng 1290. Description: https://ssl.gstatic.com/ui/v1/icons/mail/images/cleardot.gif Video funded by MIT Libraries and produced by MIT Academic Media Production Services. Directed by Jana Dambrogio, Thomas F. Peterson (1957) Conservator, MIT Libraries, and Dr Daniel Starza Smith, British Academy Post-Doctoral Fellow, Lincoln College, Oxford. WEB: Libraries.mit.edu/preserve. Follow us on Twitter: @letterlocking #JohnDonneLetterlock

Category: Fold + mechanical lock, + adhesive


Category: Fold + mechanical lock, + adhesive


 Fold, wrap mechanical lock at fore-edge, and secure with adhesive.

This letter is folded and secured shut with a mechanical lock, often either a textile floss or a band of paper or parchment - the lock is not cut from the substrate it is to secure. The lock is wrapped around the folded packet, with the adhesive holding it in place and it does not pass through a slit or pin hole that penetrates all the panels of the folded letter.

A common variant of this letter is the “pleated” or plighted letter, considered one of the most intimate letterlocking formats of the early modern period. Commonly, several wraps of silk floss would be pulled taut around the fore-edges of the folded letter, secured in place on the outer panelsof the letter with sealing wax. The rectangular package, up to 45mm high and 105mm wide, that resulted was small enough to be hidden in the palm of one’s hand. It was an aesthetically pleasing format.

The second Earl of Essex to Queen Elizabeth I: Pleated letter secured with paper band and sealing wax

Modeled after British Library Add. Ms. 74286. Robert Devereaux, second Earl of Essex to Queen Elizabeth I. Of the British Library's collection of 46 letters from the Second Earl of Essex to Queen Elizabeth I of England, this is the only one with evidence suggesting it was once secured shut with a 5 mm band of paper and sealing wax.

Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock + adhesive


Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock + adhesive


The substrate is first folded into a packet, then stabbed or slit near the fore-edge to allow the locking material (which is not cut from the substrate it is securing shut) to pass one or more times through one or more slits. Adhesive, often sealing wax, is placed over the slit or holes on one or both sides where the primary lock passes through the packet, and often left exposed. Sometimes silk floss instead of a paper security tab was used to sew the letter shut. Click on the images below to play the instructional videos.

Folded packet with slit/s or hole/s made through all the panels of the folded letter, the mechanical security tab laces through, adhesive is sandwiched over the lock's tail which is subsequently covered by the lock as it wraps around the fore-edge

Folded packet with two slits/holes, laced-through mechanical lock, adhesive placed over tails of lock, seal sandwiched between the packet and a shaped piece of paper or parchment. Also known as a 'two-part lock', this format lent itself to the production of letters with high aesthetic values, including an ornamental paper seal, for example, and was often used by heads of state such as Elizabeth I. 

Variation: The John Donne lock

John Donne’s surviving letters at the Folger Shakespeare Library attest to his letterlocking style around 1600–1602, when he was in his late 20s. Notoriously, these letters largely deal with the fallout from his impolitic marriage to his employer’s niece, Anne More. Donne was sacked and briefly imprisoned, and the contents of his letters are fascinating from a biographical perspective. His intricate, flashy, and apparently unique letterlocking format has never previously received comment, however. Donne cuts a lock from another piece of paper, shaping it into a kite with a long tail, folding it lengthways, and (in this example) snipping a hole from the center. Having folded up his packet, he stabs a hole through all the panels of the folded letter, perpendicular to the fore-edge. The tapered tail of the kite-shaped paper lock is pushed through the stab, trimmed at an angle, and pushed back in the direction of the fore-edge to create a secure hook. When the larger part of the lock is folded round over the fore-edge, the hook pulls tight. Warm sealing wax is applied beneath the lock to seal it down. In this example, it also emerges through the hole cut in the center of the lock.  When the signet ring or seal is applied the wax is therefore both beneath and lock, securing it shut, and exposed, creating a highly attractive packet. Digital facsimiles of the original letters can be viewed at http://luna.folger.edu/. Video funded by MIT Libraries and produced by MIT Academic Media Production Services. Directed by Jana Dambrogio, Thomas F. Peterson (1957) Conservator, MIT Libraries, and Dr Daniel Starza Smith, British Academy Post-Doctoral Fellow, Lincoln College, Oxford. WEB: Libraries.mit.edu/preserve. Twitter: @letterlocking. #JohnDonneLetterlock

The Two Part Lock. Yo el Rey. Spain. 1732.

Yo el Rey, 18 June 1732.

A model of a letterlocked ceremonial letter from the King of Spain to the Duke of Sora, June 18, 1732. The original manuscript is housed in the Boncompagni Ludovisi Family Archive in Rome, Italy.

Other examples of historic original manuscripts indicate that well-known heads of state used variations similar to this two-part paper locking system including: the earliest locked letters found in the Paston Letter collection, 1440s (British Library, Add. Ms. 43488): Queen Elizabeth I of England in the 1580s (British Library, Ms. Loan #128); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria to Cardinal Ignazio Boncompagni Ludovisi in 1775 (Boncompagni Ludovisi Family Archives, Rome Italy); and Albrecht Durer in the early 16th century.

Courtesy of HSH Prince Nicolò Boncompagni Ludovisi and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Archivio Boncompagni Ludovisi (Villa Aurora). Photo credits: J. Dambrogio 2010. To learn more visit http://villaludovisi.org/

Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock-Y + adhesive


Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock-Y + adhesive


The substrate is first folded into a packet, then stabbed or slit near the fore-edge to allow the locking material (which is cut from the substrate it is securing shut) to pass one or more times through one or more slits. Adhesive, often sealing wax, is placed over the slit or holes on one or both sides where the primary lock passes through the packet, and often left exposed. 

Folded packet with slit/s or hole/s made through all the panels of the folded letter, the mechanical security tab laces through, adhesive is sandwiched over the lock's tail which is subsequently covered by the lock as it wraps around the fore-edge. View instructional video.

Folded packet with two slits/holes, laced-through mechanical lock, adhesive placed over tails of lock, seal sandwiched between the packet and a shaped piece of paper or parchment. Also known as a 'two-part lock', this format lent itself to the production of letters with high aesthetic values, including an ornamental paper seal, for example, and was often used by heads of state such as Elizabeth I. 

Triangle-shaped paper lock with slit parallel to fore-edge, Italy England, & the Netherlands,1580s-1700s

This video demonstrates how regents, spymasters, poets, and Venetian businessman would have folded and secured their letters shut without the need for an envelope in the 16th and 17th centuries. This particular format, 'triangle-shaped paper lock with vertical stab or slit' has some of the highest built-in security features found on historic letters: the paper lock is from the same letter it is sealing shut, the paper lock weaves through a slit or slits penetrating all the panels of the folded letter, the sealing wax secures the lock in place, and the receiver must tear the paper lock to open the letter. Veneto businessman Tomaso di Livieri (Vatican Secret Archives, Fondo Veneto, Sezione II, #670, folder 3), Elizabeth I, Queen of England, her spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham (British Library, Ms. Loan #128), and others used this format as early as 1580.

Queen Elizabeth I to Rafe Sadler: Triangle-shaped paper lock with slit perpendicular to the fore-edge. England 1584

Queen Elizabeth I to Rafe Sadler: Triangle-shaped paper lock w/slit perpendicular to fore-edge. England 1584. This letterlocking  technique has features found on the most secure historic formats: the paper lock is from the same letter it is sealing shut, the tapered end of the paper lock weaves through a stab or stabs penetrating all the panels of the folded letter, the sealing wax secures the lock in place, and the receiver must tear the paper lock to gain access to the contents inside. In the late 16th century, Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Scotland, signed a letter that locks in this manner. It was addressed to Sir Rafe Sadler and dated 1584. The letter discusses the English captivity of Mary, Queen of Scots and was part of a group of letters pertaining to this topic during the final years of Mary's life before she was beheaded.

This letter is extremely rare because it has little-to-no restoration and almost all of the physical nuances of this locking device are intact so one can really study and support the proposed locking technique. There are two other letters signed by Elizabeth I with a horizontal stab examined to date but their triangle-shaped paper locks are not extant.  

British Library, Add. Ms. 22594, Loan #128, bi-folio 10/11.

Many thanks to Sotheby's for allowing me to examine this letter in 2010. Many thanks to Andrea Clarke, Curator of Early Modern Historical Manuscripts at the British Library for providing access to this manuscript. Thanks to Heather Wolfe, Curator of Manuscripts at the Folger for viewing this letter with me at the British Library in 2013.

Letterlocking refers to the process by which a substrate (such as papyrus, parchment, or paper) is folded and secured shut to function as its own enclosure or sending device. Letterlocking is part of a 10,000 year-old information security tradition, ranging from Mesopotamian clay bullae to Bitcoin. Variations found in cultures throughout the world manipulate information to ensure secure communications. Documenting the physical details of well-preserved originals has helped to define the different locking formats with their multiple levels of built-in security and their various authentication devices. These formats may correlate to the sensitivity of the information contained inside. WEB: libraries.mit.edu/preserve Twitter:  @letterlocking * jld@mit.edu

Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock-Y-attached + adhesive


Category: Fold + slit (s) or pin hole (s) + mechanical lock-Y-attached + adhesive


The substrate is first folded into a packet, then stabbed or slit near the fore-edge to allow the locking material (which is cut from the substrate it is securing shut) to pass one or more times through one or more slits. Adhesive, often sealing wax, is placed over the slit or holes on one or both sides where the primary lock passes through the packet, and often left exposed. 

Single contiguous lock is laced through slit/s or pin hole/s; the lock's tail and slit are sealed with adhesive. Also known as the "blank margin lock

Blank Margin Lock. England. 

Letterlocking: Blank margin lock. Model of the highest level of built-in security found in letterlocking since the paper lock remains attached to the actual letter it is securing shut.

Letter modelled after a letter sent rom Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton (1540-1614) to his cousin Sir Richard Leveson (1598–1661). The original is found in the British Library, Papers of Sir Robert Harley Papers, Add MS. 70107 Misc 28, Letter 2  Letter 2's physical evidence is important because the paper lock remains attached to the letter to show that the lock is not cut from the paper and laced separately, a rare and important find. Letters 3-6 are the same format with less physical evidence intact.

Other notables who may have used variations of this blank margin lock format (NB, research in progress. These examples may not have been sealed with wax which would bump them into letterlocking format III: Fold + Slit + mechanical lock). 1.) Catherine Di Medici (b. 1519- d. 1589, 11 lines of text to her son Charles IX or Henry VI, Houghton Library, Harvard University, Hollis 4069635, pf ms Am 1304, r.f. Sum 2), 2.) Henry IV, King of France without date to Charles IX of France written when King of Navarre, "pleated" letter with blank margin lock format, has three vertical stabs, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 3.) James I "pleated" letter with blank margin lock (Letter has a series of short vertical stabs suggesting paper lock was woven through the series of holes, at Hatfield House, England, folio 68/68 (old numbers135/48). 4.) Mary, Queen of Scots, letters from (Hatfield House) and her last letter before her execution (National Library of Scotland, NLS reference: Adv.MS.54.1.1 ).

Many thanks to Arnold Hunt, lecturer in early modern history at Cambridge University for suggesting this and many other letters to examine for this study (and who nicknamed this letterlocking format, the blank margin lock). Dr. Hunt and I are currently writing a paper about this series of letters.

Presentations & Publications


Presentations & Publications


Presentations & Publications

Click on the images below to link to recorded video presentations, powerpoint slide presentations, or downloadable PDF's of publications.

February 2015. Presentation. Unlocking the Secrets of John Donne's Letters.

Speaker: Jana Dambrogio, Thomas F. Peterson (1957) Conservator, MIT Libraries, and Dr. Daniel Starza Smith, British Academy Post-Doctoral Fellow in English Literature and Oakeshott Junior Research Fellow, Lincoln College, University of Oxford.

DECEMBER 2014. Presentation: Conservation Collaborations at the MIT Libraries.

By: Jana Dambrogio, Thomas F. Peterson (1957) Conservator. Hosted by: Program on Information Science, MIT Libraries.

 

OCTOBER 2014. Publication. Historic Letterlocking: the Art and Security of Letterwriting. Marie Antoinette’s use of removable locks in 18th-century France.

In the Canadian Bookbinders Book Artist Guild Journal Book Arts arts du livre Canada. 2014 vol.5 no.2, 21-23.

April 2014. Presentation. Historic Letterlocking: The Art and Security of Letterwriting. Preservation Week Talks at MIT: The Art and Science of Document Security: Past, Present, and Future.

Jana Dambrogio, Thomas F. Peterson (1957) Conservator, MIT Libraries Curation and Preservation Services.

March 2013. Presentation. Preservation EXPOsed! 2013: Welcoming Remarks and Folding and Letterlocking Techniques, 1776-1868

Jana Dambrogio, Senior Conservator, Document Conservation Division, National Archives and Records Administration. Welcoming Remarks by AUTOS David Ferriero and Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler, Chief, Document Conservation Divistion. The Historic Folding and Letterlocking Techniques, 1776-1868 presentation begins at minute 8:07. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

#letterlocking @letterlocking